While WW1 did not directly cause WW2, many of its after-effects led to weakened European states who were weak, needed strong leadership, and opened the door for dictatorships. The consequences of the first world war indirectly led to the second.
End of World War I
On the morning of November 11, 1918, the French delegation witnessed the Germans signing the Armistice that would go into effect at the eleventh hour, of the eleventh day of the eleventh month of 1918. It was exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the event that had set the ‘world’ part of the war into motion. The perceived humiliation and harsh terms of the subsequent Treaty of Versailles created a motive for Hitler and the leadership of the Third Reich to seek revenge. One of the terms of the treat was that Germany had to pay the equivalent of $124 million (in 2021 terms). Another term took sections of Germany and gave them to Czechoslovakia and Poland.
Dictators from the Depression
After the Treaty of Versailles was signed, the world plunged into a different kind of chaoes. Germany fell into economic troubles, but they weren’t the one country struggling. Russia and Italy also had difficulties recovering. History has shown us that, during times of chaos, people look to strong leaders who they hope will get the job of done so the country can recover. This was no exception. The political leaders who came to power during this period – Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini – were very powerful.
Though born in Austria, Hitler considered himself a German. He fought for Germany during WWI, being partially blinded and shot. After the war, he became a spy for the Social Democratic Party who spied on another German group, the German Workers Party. It was during this time that he became well known and began to get a following. Germans were struggling, financially, as they were required by the Treaty to pay back damages and reparations from WWI. Hitler began to speak out and lead protests. He was sentenced to jail at one point, where he wrote his autobiography, Mein Kampf. After release, he had even more followers and began his ascent to power.
Tsar Nikolas was overthrown in the Russian Revolution, at the end of WWI, by the Bolsheviks, a Communist party. In 1922, Russia and several other countries joined together to form the Soviet Union under Lenin’s leadership. In 1924, when Lenin passed, Stalin came to power. Stalin wanted to industrialize the Soviet Union to strengthen the economy. He introduced a plan called ‘collectivization,’ where the Soviets took land from individual owners, and gave it to the State (the government). The idea was to increase efficiency, store more food, use less labor (more machines), and send farmers to work in factories.
Mussolini is often seen as the founder of facsism, a fom of totalitarian government with a capitalist economy. Before he came to power, the Italian government was led by a king-appointed Prime Minister. Mussolini had a group of ‘blackshirts,’ people who went around stirring up trouble, beating up political opponents, and generally clearing the way for his rise to power. The king appointed Mussolini as PM in 1922 so that the blackshirts would stop the violence. (This is called ‘appeasement,’ and it’s not a good idea.) In 1925, Mussolini became a dictator, taking away freedoms and forcing loyalty.
Appeasement & the League of Nations
The precursor to the United Nations, the League of Nations was formed at the end of WWI to ensure world war never occurred again. Unfortunately, they were afraid to act against aggressive countries, for fear of starting another war. This was another form of appeasement (remember the king of Italy?). One of the earliest instances of appeasement was when Mussolini decided to invade and conquer Ethiopia in 1935…and the League of Nations did not act. Hitler then decided to try his hand at reconquering some lands.
Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was not to have a large army, but that was ignored as the German army swelled and the country also formed an Air Force and Navy. By the late 1930s, Hitler had begun to annex places like Austria and Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia that had been taken from Germany after WWI). The League of Nations did try to act at this point, and on September 30th, 1938 they created the Munich Pact, which allowed Germany to have Sudetenland, but would not allow them to go any further. This was another act of appeasement.
Post World War II
After World War II, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin created a new international security agency, the United Nations, with hope of preventing WWIII. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as new world super-powers at the end of WW2. They had been allies during the war, but mostly because they had a common enemy. These new super-powers had extremely different views about government and economics — one was capitalist and the other communist — and they had a lot of distrust of each other. This distrust led to nearly fifty years of a Cold War – a war without actual fighting, but with the continual threat of nuclear warfare. Both the Korean War and the Vietnam War were extensions of the Cold War.
Writing is an integral part of the language arts classes taught at Sparks Academy. We offer four levels of instruction, each building upon the last, until students are ready to write in any form requested of them – whether at a career or college! But maybe you don’t want a full class….how can you make writing fun at home?
Literature Studies & Living Books
What are living books, and how can you use them to make your homeschool shine? Get all the tips & tricks in Using Living Books to Homeschool. Scroll down to snag pre-made bundles of novel studies!
Another fun option for teaching writing is through the language arts classes Sparks Academy! There are four levels offered currently, including High School 1, High School 2, High School 3, and Level 7. (The last one is for 7th/8th/9th grade, depending on your student’s skills.) This is an online co-op, with weekly student interaction in the private classroom forum. Learn more here.
Homeschooling is a big job! If you’re trying to be mom, wife, housekeeper, chauffeur, and teacher…you’re going to tucker out quickly. Homeschool planning can help you start off on the right foot!
Remember this, you can be flexible and creative with your schedule. There are as many different ways to homeschool as there are homeschooling families. Also, your home is not a school, and you don’t have to re-create school, so don’t be afraid to do what works for you!
You’ve heard the phrase, “Failing to plan is planning to fail.” Some folks may think they don’t need a planner (I’m guessing these folks are under 40), and truthfully, failing to plan may not be quite that bad, but it does mean forgetting important things. Maybe you’re a tech person, or maybe you prefer pen and ink, but find a planning method that works for you!
Start by outlining the year. Make a note in each month of birthdays, holidays, vacations, and any planned time off. This could include upcoming moves, pregnancy due dates, or other big events. After noting these, make sure you have the minimum number of required school days for your state (usually 180).
While you’re planning, include some field trips. If you like routine, maybe plan a specific day each month (eg, third Friday), or you can just wing it! Also be sure to leave some blank spaces – days for catching up, following bunny trails, and for those #LifeHappens moments.
Homeschool Planning: Choosing a Groove
Now that you have an idea of what your calendar year looks like, decide what rhythm you want the school year to have.
Do you want to follow a traditional school schedule, mimicking the public school calendar of August through June, with similar breaks? This might be a good option if your children have cousins or friends that they want to see on school breaks.
Do you want to school year-round, spreading out the work at a relaxed pace and taking time off regularly?
Do you want to have a four-day school week, leaving one day each week free for field trips, appointments, and playdates? This can be a good option if you need to schedule regular appointments, as you’ll know you always have this day of the week free.
When you’re making your plan for the year, you’ll want to put in scheduled appointments and schedule out the first few weeks of school work, but don’t plan too far in advance. Why? Because life happens. You might need to adjust the class work load, adding more or relaxing it, depending on your student’s progress. No need for you to waste time planning every single day of school when it will change.
Each month, reevaluate where your student is and plan out schoolwork for the next month around the appointments, field trips, and blank spaces. Oh ya. And write in pencil. Because things change. When it comes to planning, we follow the Robinson’s advice with curriculum lessons and just, “Keep Moving Forward.”
For older students – in middle and high school – it’s never too early to help them start their own planning as well. This teaches personal responsibility and time management. Check out the Five Best Planners for Teens to find an option perfect for your teen.
Depending on the age of your student, you’ll need to plan a little more or a little less. In general, the younger the child, the laxer you can be.
Birth to Age 3
This age is about learning through play. Life skills, motor skills, and language development are the primary goals.
Preschool and Kindergarten
While children should still be focusing on learning through play, there can be a slight switch to academic goals. Learning letters, numbers, sounds, how to print their name are the primary goals.
There is still some learning through play, but more focus on academic goals. This is the time to decide what type of curriculum you want to use – classical, traditional, unit studies, Charlotte Mason, etc – and be sure to cover reading, writing, and arithmetic, as well as introductory science and social studies. Follow your student’s interests and curiosities!
This is when students really begin to buckle down in academics, becoming more intentional about learning. Classes become more difficult, electives are added into the day, and students begin to think about career options for down the road. Students become more independent and start taking more responsibility for their learning at this age, too.
Start with the end in sight. Have an idea of what your child might like to do after graduation, and plan courses around this. Classes are divided into core subjects (science, math, language arts, history) and elective classes. Don’t forget to plan for standardized testing if college is a possibility. Internships, hands-on projects, and volunteer hours should all be recorded, too.
You may not consider meal planning part of homeschooling planning, but it’s really important! Without having a plan in place for dinner, it’s suddenly five o’clock and you have nothing thawed out. This leads to a lot of take out, going out to eat, and stressed, hungry family members.
Consider your weekly schedule when meal planning. If Tuesdays are a full, busy day with evening activities, plan a freezer meal. Or make a large meal on Monday and serve the leftovers the next day. Save those time-consuming family favorites for days that are more flexible.
You have everything in place to have a wonderful homeschool year! But don’t forget to attend to yourself, too. Homeschool moms are notorious for wearing twenty hats at once! We go and go and go and go until we just can’t do it anymore…it’s called burnout.
So glad you asked! These are classes hosted online that include textbook and video elements, discussion feeds with peers, and live, virtual meetings. Each week, the students are interacting through facilitated discussion in a private forum. Rather than labeling these live classes, we have labeled them blended because we will not be meeting live every single week.
How and when will the class meet? Each class has its own class join code in Canvas. Classes “meet” weekly via shared assignments and moderated discussion during the school year (August 14, 2023 – May 4, 2024 for the ’23-’24 school year). Most classes are pre-recorded with community discussion and group chats. Periodically we have live class meetings. These are on the syllabus for your student to plan ahead. If you are unable to attend a live class, it will be recorded for later playback. Self-paced coursework will be assigned between classes. Scheduled classes are posted in Central Standard Time.
What it my student is absent? Since the coursework is assigned on a weekly basis, students have the flexibility to complete it on their own schedules. If your student will absent for an extended period of time, or you are predicting an act of nature (eg, hurricane at your home), please contact us so we can make arrangements. If a family emergency arises, please do the same. We understand that life happens occasionally.
I don’t think I quite understand how a pre-recorded class works with group discussion? If it isn’t live, how do they get to interact with the instructor and each other?
That’s a good question, and one our test group grappled with, but currently what it looks like is: periodic live classes (once per quarter), discussion threads, peer reviews, and digital interaction through the platform with face-to-face interaction in those live classes (which will be recorded for any students who miss attending). Some of the classes also contain a group project component, where they will be working together, virtually.
Our original plan had been to stream every class live as live interactive, but the internet capability where we live simply isn’t up to the task. And I’m not moving just for streaming. However, we are able to secure a place up in the city every so often to hijack their net for those live streaming classes.
What technology will we need? Required technology: Digital notebook (Google Docs or One Drive), internet access, Canvas (you will be sent access instructions), and the ability to use camera & microphone during class discussions
Who is teaching these classes? History and language arts classes are taught primarily by Yvie Field, a homeschool mom with close to twenty years of educational experience (both homeschool and classroom), as well as some adjunct appearances by parental figures who are retired teachers, particularly in high school language arts. Science classes are taught by a former teacher and a teaching assistant. We may bring other, experienced and vetted, teachers on board, as well as guest speakers who are experts in their field and / or bring a unique perspective on the material. As the academy expands, we are looking to add licensed teachers for our science and math classes.
Where can I see a sample class? Currently, there is a Language Arts 1, a Physical Science class, a Chemistry class, and an American History class for sample on the Academy page.
What if my student has questions? Within our online platform, Canvas, there is an email icon which will allow your student to directly contact the teacher with any questions.
How do you ensure students’ privacy? None of our students’ personal information is revealed in the online classroom. Students log in using a screen name. They do not provide last names or any contact information in the online classroom. Only teachers can see any personal information about each student. Work assignments are submitted via email and will only be shared with student permission for educational purposes. Teachers are not responsible for archiving data, so be sure to keep a copy of your work. Sparks Academy uses security protocols, but is not liable for data breaches or lost data.
Do I have to buy the curriculum, or will it be provided? All co-op members are required to purchase the PDF or physical copy of each course that they are participating in. (Purchases are verified. There are a few different options for verification.) In most cases, you will only need the student textbook. This information is provided in the course description. The student texts for Economics and Energy Science come as part of the enrollment fee.
Grading All students receive a grade based on projects, quizzes, journals, and class participation.
Why is it called Sparks Academy?
Our oldest son is a blacksmith, and also a fan of word play. When we were hanging out in his shop one afternoon, watching him work (and making sparks), it just developed. Then he came up with the slogan, and the rest is history…
What if I just want someone to help with writing assessment, but don’t need an entire class?
If you usually use The Good & the Beautiful, why did you choose Notgrass for history?
TGTB is currently revamping their entire history program. Once they release it, we will examine the changes to see if it is still a good fit. In the meantime, Notgrass is an amazingly comprehensive program that will prepare your high schooler for further academic challenges! There is still a possibility that we will offer both Notgrass and TGTB history options for you to select from in the future, but we simply cannot say for sure right now.
What if my student just needs assistance with focusing on college prep?
After polling several homeschooling families on what they thought was the one must-read book for high school girls, we’ve put together a list of thirty-two books that all girls should read in middle and high school. They include old classics and new favorites, and have lots of character-building lessons, too! Parents should always preview books first….many of these are only appropriate at the high school level.
Boys tend to fall staunchly into the ‘reader’ or ‘non-reader’ category. Sometimes it just takes a little push toward more action-packed, exciting, adventure-filled stories to move them from one category to the other! We’ve put together a list of thirty-two books that all boys should read in middle and high school. Not only are they full of adventure (which they’ll love), but they have lots of character-building lessons, too! Parents should always preview books first….many of these are only appropriate at the high school level.
For more literature resources, check out SchoolhouseTeachers! It includes all classes, for all grades…and it’s one price for the entire family. There are many different learning styles to select from, so if you have one visual kid who needs a relaxed pace and one aural kid who needs a more stringent pace, there are classes that will fit them each. With over 475 classes available, plus extras for mom and dad, this is my favorite resource to offer new families wanting to dip their toe into homeschooling!